Radiocarbon dating biodiesel
It is made by the catalytic hydration of ethylene with sulfuric acid as the catalyst.
It can also be obtained via ethylene or acetylene, from calcium carbide, coal, oil gas, and other sources.
Two million short tons (1,786,000 long tons; 1,814,000 t) of petroleum-derived ethanol are produced annually.
Ethanol is also produced industrially from ethylene by hydration of the double bond in the presence of a catalyst and high temperature.
It can be made from very common crops such as hemp, sugarcane, potato, cassava and corn.
There has been considerable debate about how useful bioethanol is in replacing gasoline.
Although there are various ways ethanol fuel can be produced, the most common way is via fermentation.
The basic steps for large-scale production of ethanol are: microbial (yeast) fermentation of sugars, distillation, dehydration (requirements vary, see Ethanol fuel mixtures, below), and denaturing (optional).
Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks such as sugar cane, bagasse, miscanthus, sugar beet, sorghum, grain, switchgrass, barley, hemp, kenaf, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, sunflower, fruit, molasses, corn, stover, grain, wheat, straw, cotton, other biomass, as well as many types of cellulose waste and harvesting, whichever has the best well-to-wheel assessment.